Linux网络配置

一、网络地址计算:

  二进制转换;

  查看是否为同一个网段,需要根据ip地址和掩码一起决定。  二进制转换这里不做说明

  根据ip和掩码来区分,如10.0.7.10/20和10.0.14.11/20是同一个网段,但是10.0.7.10/21和10.0.14.11/21就是不同网段

二、管理以太网连接

  网络接口有序的命令为:eth0,eth1,等

    。可以给一个设备作为别名配置多个地址

    。别名以eth0:1,eth0:2,等命令.

    。别名可以看成子接口

  使用ifcofnig [ethX]查看接口配置 ;lo逻辑接口,只在自己电脑有效。

  使用ifup ethX启动接口

  使用ifdown ethX禁用接口

  网络配置文件其他全局网络设置

    全局设置/etc/sysconfig/network

      。很多参数可以由DHCP提供

      。GATEWAY可以被ifcfg配置文件取代

        

NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=service1.example.com
GATEWAY=192.168.2.254

虚拟机1:

[[email protected] ~]# ip route show    //查看本机ip列表
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.6.128 
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0  scope link  metric 1002 
default via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0 
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr add 10.0.7.10/10 dev eth0:testing  添加ip地址到网卡
[[email protected] ~]# ip route show    //查看ip列表
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.6.128 
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0  scope link  metric 1002 
10.0.0.0/10 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.0.7.10 
default via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0 

虚拟机2:

[[email protected] ~]# ip route show
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.6.129 
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0  scope link  metric 1002 
default via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0 
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr del 10.0.0.128/24 dev eth0    //删除网卡
RTNETLINK answers: Cannot assign requested address
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr add 10.0.14.11/20 dev eth0:testing    //添加网卡
[[email protected] ~]# ping 10.0.14.11 -c2    //ping两次包
PING 10.0.14.11 (10.0.14.11) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.0.14.11: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.030 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.14.11: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.036 ms

--- 10.0.14.11 ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.030/0.033/0.036/0.003 ms
[[email protected] ~]# ping 10.0.7.10 -c2
PING 10.0.7.10 (10.0.7.10) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.0.7.10: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.781 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.7.10: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.456 ms

--- 10.0.7.10 ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.456/0.618/0.781/0.164 ms
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr del 10.0.14.11/20 dev eth0:testing
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr add 10.0.14.11/21 dev eth0:testing
[[email protected] ~]# ip route
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.6.129 
10.0.8.0/21 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.0.14.11 
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0  scope link  metric 1002 
default via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0 
[[email protected] ~]# ping 10.0.0.7 -c2
PING 10.0.0.7 (10.0.0.7) 56(84) bytes of data.
^C
--- 10.0.0.7 ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% packet loss, time 2008ms
使用别名的方式配置网络:
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0:tech 10.0.0.128/24 [[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:20:00:C1 inet addr:192.168.6.128 Bcast:192.168.6.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe20:c1/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:48162 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1750 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:2954753 (2.8 MiB) TX bytes:124210 (121.2 KiB) eth0:tech Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:20:00:C1 inet addr:10.0.0.128 Bcast:10.0.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

使用ip link排查网络

#ip link help

#ip link show查看端口是否插入网线:

[[email protected] ~]# ip link show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:20:00:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

#ip addr help

#ip add show  

[[email protected] ~]# ip addr show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:20:00:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.6.128/24 brd 192.168.6.255 scope global eth0
    inet 10.0.7.10/10 scope global eth0
    inet 10.0.0.128/24 brd 10.0.0.255 scope global eth0:tech
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe20:c1/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr del 10.0.7.10/10 dev eth0
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:20:00:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.6.128/24 brd 192.168.6.255 scope global eth0
    inet 10.0.0.128/24 brd 10.0.0.255 scope global eth0:tech
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe20:c1/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
[[email protected] ~]# ip del 10.0.0.128/24 dev eth0
Object "del" is unknown, try "ip help".
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr  del 10.0.0.128/24 dev eth0

 选择别名的方式通过ifconfig是看不了ip addr配置网络信息的。

ifconfig配置的方式可以通过ifconfig命令看到

以上配置方式均为临时配置方式。如果需要永久生效可以通过【图形网络配置system-config-network】配置

  系统->管理->网络

    。激活/禁用接口

    。设置IP地址/DHCP

    。修改DNS配置

    。修改网关地址

网络配置文件以太网设备

  设备配置以文本文件保存/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethX

  所有的选项列在/usr/share/doc/initscripts-*/sysconfig.txt

  

 

 BOOTPROTO是DHCP的引导协议 

重启网络:

[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/network restart
正在关闭接口 eth0:                                        [确定]
关闭环回接口:                                             [确定]
弹出环回接口:                                             [确定]
弹出界面 eth0:                                            [确定]  

网络配置文件其他全局网络设置

  全局设置/etc/sysconfig/network配置网关

    。很多参数可以由DHCP提供

    。GATEWAY可以被ifcfg配置文件取代

      NETWORKING=yes

      HOSTNAME=server1.example.com

      GATEWAY=192.168.2.254

网关:

[[email protected] ~]# ip route get 192.14.21.1  //使用ip route get ip地址查找当前服务器配置的缺省网关地址为192.168.6.2
192.14.21.1 via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0  src 192.168.6.128 
    cache  mtu 1500 advmss 1460 hoplimit 64
[[email protected] ~]# ip route get 192.14.48.5
192.14.48.5 via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0  src 192.168.6.128 
    cache  mtu 1500 advmss 1460 hoplimit 64

临时改动网关,也就是服务器下一跳地址:

[[email protected] ~]# ip route show
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.6.128 
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0  scope link  metric 1002 
default via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0 
[[email protected] ~]# ip route replace default via 192.168.6.254    //替换下一跳网关或者路由
[[email protected] ~]# ip route show
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.6.128 
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0  scope link  metric 1002 
default via 192.168.6.254 dev eth0 

[[email protected] ~]# ip route del default     //删除默认路由
[[email protected] ~]# ip route show
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.6.128
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0 scope link metric 1002

[[email protected] ~]# ip route add 0.0.0.0/0 via 192.168.6.2    //添加默认路由
[[email protected] ~]# ip route show
192.168.6.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.6.128
169.254.0.0/16 dev eth0 scope link metric 1002
default via 192.168.6.2 dev eth0

 

网关只有一个。所以不要在ifcfg-ethX中配置GATEWAY,不然不好找到对应的GATEWAY。尽量在全局配置GATEWAY

DNS网络配置文件

。域名服务提供了主机名到网络地址的转换

。服务器地址可以通过DHCP或者/etc/resolv.conf指定

  search example.com cracker.org

  nameserver 192.168.6.254

  nameserver 192.168.6.254  

[[email protected] ~]# nslookup example.com       //解析域名看看对应的IP
Server: 192.168.6.2 Address: 192.168.6.2#53 Non-authoritative answer: Name: example.com Address: 93.184.216.34 [[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/resolv.conf

[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/services | grep domain
domain 53/tcp # name-domain server
domain 53/udp
domaintime 9909/tcp # domaintime
domaintime 9909/udp # domaintime

DNS查询命令:

  host ip方向解析域名

  host 域名解析ip

 

 

Linux网络配置

原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/hongjinping/p/13035139.html

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